Naturalization: 10 Steps To Become A U.S. Citizen

Naturalization is when a foreign national becomes a legal citizen of the United States. It grants them the full rights and responsibilities of American citizenship. This complex process involves several steps and requirements essential to navigate for those seeking to become U.S. citizens.

Here, you will explore the ten crucial steps to naturalization in the United States. Understanding these ensures a smoother and more informed path toward achieving this important milestone.

What Are The 10 Steps A U.S. Immigrant Must Take To Become A Naturalized Citizen

10 Steps To U.S. Citizenship Through Naturalization

If you’re a permanent resident ready to leap into U.S. citizenship, follow these ten steps from start to finish. Having an immigration lawyer by your side can make the process smoother. They can guide you through each step to naturalization.

Step 1: Verify Your U.S. Citizenship

Before starting your naturalization journey, confirm your U.S. citizenship status. You may already be a citizen if you were born in the United States or its territories. Alternatively, if your parents were U.S. citizens, you could have acquired citizenship regardless of your place of birth. If neither of these conditions applies to you, proceed to the next step.

Step 2: Confirm Your Eligibility

Your eligibility is a critical checkpoint in your journey to becoming a naturalized citizen. It’s not just about your rights and responsibilities; it’s also about avoiding any potential legal snags. You’re eligible if:

  • You’ve been a lawful permanent resident for at least five years (or three years if married to a U.S. citizen).
  • You demonstrate good moral character, including following the law and paying taxes.
  • You must have accumulated 30 months of physical presence in the United States.
  • You’ve resided in the district or state where you’re applying for citizenship for the past three months.
  • You’ve passed the English and civics tests to showcase your understanding of the language and the U.S. government.
  • You’ve demonstrated your commitment to the principles and ideals of the U.S. Constitution.

Step 3: Complete Form N-400

Form N-400 is a comprehensive document that collects detailed information about your history, immigration journey, and eligibility for naturalization. Accurate filling is crucial, as errors or omissions can result in processing delays or application denials.

You must diligently provide honest and thorough answers to all the questions. It entails disclosing any past criminal history, international travel, and affiliations. Supporting documentation, such as tax records and evidence of good moral character, should accompany your submission.

Step 4: Submit The Form & Pay Fees

With your application fully prepared, you’ll submit it to the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) and the required fees. Form N-400 can be conveniently filed online, and associated fees can be paid through the digital platform.

Following submission, USCIS promptly issues a receipt notice. The online portal allows you to monitor your case’s status and processing times efficiently. This streamlined electronic process offers improved accessibility and transparency, providing real-time updates on your naturalization journey.

Step 5: Attend A Biometrics Appointment

When your application necessitates biometrics, USCIS will send you a formal notice detailing the appointment’s specifics. It includes the date, time, and location. During this appointment, you’ll provide fingerprints and, if necessary, have your photograph taken.

The biometrics procedure is a standard part of the application review, ensuring that essential security checks and verification procedures are conducted. Adhering to your scheduled biometrics appointment is vital in preventing potential delays in your naturalization process.

Step 6: Attend Your USCIS Interview

Once you’ve completed the initial stages of your application, USCIS will schedule an interview to finalize the process. It’s crucial to adhere to the date and time specified in your notice and report to the designated USCIS office.

Don’t forget to bring the appointment notice with you, as it’s essential documentation for the interview. This step is pivotal in your journey to U.S. citizenship, where your application will undergo a thorough review and assessment.

Step 7: Await USCIS’s Decision On Your Application

After submitting your Form N-400, USCIS will send you a decision notice. If you’ve filed electronically, you can also access it online. There are three possible outcomes:

  • Approval: USCIS may grant your Form N-400 if the evidence in your record establishes your eligibility for naturalization.
  • Continuation: If additional evidence or documentation is required or you must provide the correct documents, USCIS may continue your application for further review. They may also decide to continue your application if you still need to pass the English and civics tests on your initial attempt.
  • Denial: USCIS will reject your application if the evidence on record does not meet the prescribed eligibility criteria for naturalization.

Step 8: Attend The Naturalization Ceremony

If USCIS approves your Form N-400, you may have the opportunity to participate in a same-day naturalization ceremony following your interview. In cases where a same-day event isn’t feasible, USCIS will send you an official notification specifying the date, time, and location. For those who submitted their N-400 application online, an electronic notice is also accessible within their application account.

The naturalization ceremony is a momentous occasion, marking the final step in your journey to becoming a U.S. citizen. Participants recite the Oath of Allegiance during the ceremony, officially committing to uphold and support the U.S. Constitution. It’s a proud and patriotic moment for new citizens, symbolizing their integration into the American community.

Step 9: Attend The Oath Of Allegiance Ceremony

Becoming a U.S. citizen culminates in attending the Oath of Allegiance ceremony. This momentous event signifies your commitment to upholding the principles of the U.S. Constitution and officially marks your transition into U.S. citizenship.

To reach this stage, you’ll first complete the questionnaire on Form N-445, the Notice of Naturalization Oath Ceremony. Following this, you’ll report to the event venue and check in with USCIS officials. They will review your responses on the form, and if everything aligns, you’ll proceed to take the Oath of Allegiance.

You’ll surrender your Green Card during the ceremony as you recite the oath. Upon completion, you’ll receive your Certificate of Naturalization, signifying your new status as a U.S. citizen. It’s vital to carefully inspect this certificate at the ceremony site and promptly notify USCIS of any discrepancies.

Step 10: Embracing U.S. Citizenship

Becoming a U.S. citizen bestows a range of rights and privileges, including the ability to vote in federal elections, serve on federal juries, and travel internationally with the protection of a U.S. passport. U.S. citizens also have priority when petitioning to bring family members into the country.

You can secure citizenship for your children under 18 if they were born abroad to a U.S. citizen. Furthermore, citizenship is often a prerequisite for specific job opportunities and running for federal offices, and it’s essential for maintaining one’s residency in the United States.

U.S. citizenship is both a legal status and a gateway to actively participating in civic life, asserting your rights, and accessing numerous opportunities. These contribute to the broader social, political, and educational landscape of the United States. While the path to U.S. citizenship may seem daunting, with the guidance of an immigration attorney, it becomes an achievable and confident journey.

What Are The Pathways To Be A Naturalized Citizen?

Learn How To Correctly And Efficiently Follow The Legal Steps To Achieve U.S. Naturalization

Navigating the journey to U.S. naturalized citizenship involves various pathways. It includes family-based and employment-based routes, asylum or refugee status, special programs, and military service.

  • Family-Based Naturalization: Qualifying through close family relationships with U.S. citizens, such as spouses, parents, or children.
  • Employment-Based Naturalization: Obtaining citizenship through employment-based visas, particularly for those with specific skills or in-demand professions.
  • Asylum or Refugee Status: A path to citizenship becomes available for individuals granted asylum or refugee status after a specified period.
  • Special Programs: This category includes pathways for individuals like Amerasian immigrants or those born to foreign diplomats on U.S. soil.
  • Military Service: Serving in the U.S. military offers an expedited pathway to citizenship for eligible non-citizens who have served honorably.

For a smoother journey through the steps and pathways to U.S. naturalized citizenship, enlisting the guidance of an immigration attorney proves highly beneficial. Their insights are invaluable in achieving the dream of American citizenship.

How Can An Immigration Lawyer Assist You?

Engaging the services of an immigration attorney is a prudent decision due to the intricacies of the U.S. immigration system. Seasoned attorneys offer invaluable insights, helping applicants identify the most suitable pathway based on their circumstances. They prove indispensable in addressing challenges during the application process.

These legal professionals efficiently respond to requests for additional evidence and ensure thorough preparations. Also, they provide crucial representation during interviews and, if necessary, offer guidance on appeals or reapplications post-denial. Additionally, they keep applicants informed about policy shifts, ensuring a smooth and successful immigration journey.


Naturalization is how a foreign citizen gains legal U.S. citizenship. It involves ten essential steps, which include verifying U.S. citizenship, confirming eligibility, completing Form N-400, and submitting the form and fees. You must also attend a biometrics appointment, have a USCIS interview, await a decision, and attend a naturalization ceremony. 

Moreover, various pathways to naturalization include family-based, employment-based, asylum or refugee status, special programs, and military service. With all of this, immigration lawyers are invaluable in guiding applicants through the complex process and ensuring a successful immigration journey.

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